American Cancer Society elucidates issues involved in breast and prostate cancer screening
The ACS has been attempting to respond to recent research documenting the fact that "American medicine has overpromised when it comes to screening" without discouraging patients from seeking appropriate medical evaluations. Unlike colon and cervical cancer screening, which have lead to the identification of deadly cancers and a substantial improvement in the related death rate, prostate and breast cancer screening have not significantly improved the survival rates for these cancers. Instead, it appears that prostate cancer screening in particular, and to a lesser extent breast cancer screening, have resulted in the early identification and treatment of non-fatal tumors, while failing to catch fatal tumors early enough to be effective. The ACS noted that while there has been a 40 percent increasein the diagnosis of breast cancer, this has led to only a ten percent decline in the diagnosis of Stage II and IV breast cancer.
The ACS notes that timely mammography is still an important health choice, although its effectiveness has been exaggerated. Researchers suggest that the problem lies with our inability to distinguish between relatively benign cancers and cancers that will be fatal if left untreated. Until we make that scientific leap, many patients will undergo expensive, invasive and dangerous treatments that ultimately prove to be unnecessary. Recent research has demonstrated that in many cases the complications arising from treatment may outweigh the benefits gained. A long-term study from New England documented the fact that survival rates among "over-treated" patients were lower than survival rates among the "under-treated" population. This is not simply a question of "more is better." We must determine how to judiciously apply resources where they will best serve the patient.